Financial Services

Blog | The LenddoEFL Assessment Part 2: Measuring how people answer questions with metadata

By: Jonathan Winkle, Manager of Behavioral Sciences, LenddoEFL

The last post showed how our psychometric content reveals people’s personality traits, but our assessment also captures an abundance of metadata. Metadata is information about how people process the questions and exercises they complete. Here are some examples.

  • How long did an applicant take to answer a question compared to their average response time?

  • How many times did an applicant change their mind and switch their response before submitting their answer?

  • Is the applicant’s information consistent with their written request to the financial institution? (e.g., requested loan amount)

By measuring metadata, LenddoEFL’s approach goes beyond what is possible in traditional credit applications to reveal more information about applicants. Consider the following question from our test:

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For this question, we consider how long it took the applicant to slide to one answer or another and whether they changed their opinions in the middle. Someone who is confident that they are an organized person should move the slider in only one direction and relatively quickly. Quick, smooth answers belie confidence, whereas slow, wavering responses demonstrate uncertainty.

The relationship between response time and default rate can be complex. Consider another psychometric exercise:

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In this case response time was a non-linear predictor of default, where both slow and fast response times were associated with a greater credit risk!

There are many ways to interpret response time metadata. If an applicant answers a question quickly, are they confident or are they cheating? If they are taking a long time to respond, are they having difficulty understanding the question or putting extra effort into getting their answer right? By collecting metadata across all questions, we can compare a single response time to the applicant’s overall response time distribution to differentiate things like confidence and cheating (see graph below).

An example distribution of response times generated from artificial data

An example distribution of response times generated from artificial data

Conclusion

Metadata reveals another layer of behavior on top of the personality traits we target and can be used to identify features such as confidence, cheating, and confusion. These behavioral traits can be used for predicting default and ensuring that we are collecting high quality data for our models.



Blog | The LenddoEFL Assessment Part 1: Using psychometrics to quantify personality traits

By: Jonathan Winkle, Manager of Behavioral Sciences, LenddoEFL

At LenddoEFL, we collect various forms of alternative data to help lenders verify identities, analyze credit risk, and better understand an individual. One of our most important tools for financial inclusion is our psychometric assessment. While some people still lack a robust digital footprint, everyone has a psychological profile that can be characterized and used for alternative credit scoring.

In this series of posts, we shed light on the science behind the LenddoEFL psychometric assessment and how we’ve pioneered an approach to measure anyone’s creditworthiness.

Psychometrics for credit assessment

LenddoEFL employs a global research team to ensure our assessment captures the most important personality traits that predict default. We deliver innovative psychometric content by combining insights from leading academics with years of in-house research and development.

Each question in our assessment is targeted to reveal psychological attributes related to creditworthiness. We quantify behaviors and attitudes such as individual outlook, self-confidence, conscientiousness, integrity, and financial decision-making in order to build an applicant’s psychometric profile. By comparing this profile to others in the applicant pool, we can better understand and predict an individual’s likelihood of default.

Psychometric example content: Financial Impulsivity

The marshmallow test asks children whether they would you like one marshmallow now or two marshmallows later, and since its advent, psychologists have recognized that the ability to delay rewards is an important predictor of later success in life.

While adults might not long for marshmallows the same way children do, a similar test can be performed using financial rewards, and research shows that people who are better at delaying rewards are less likely to default on their loans.

Drawing from this research, we ask applicants which of two options they would prefer, a smaller sooner amount of money, or a larger later amount (see image below). Asking people for their preferences across a range of monetary values and temporal delays reveals a quantitative profile of their financial impulsivity, which is indicative of their likelihood to repay debts (If you’re curious about how we deal with people trying to cheat or game the assessment, please see this blog post on our Score Confidence algorithm).

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Psychometric example content: Locus of Control

When times get tough, some people believe they can take action to overcome hardships while others believe that the challenges they face are altogether out of their hands. Those who believe their lives are governed by outside forces, an external Locus of Control, are more risk-averse and have more difficulty managing their credit.

We ask applicants to rate their agreement with a battery of statements measuring their Locus of Control, such as “My life is mostly controlled by chance events,” and “It is mostly up to luck whether or not I have many friends.” By asking these types of questions, we can precisely quantify someone’s Locus of Control along a spectrum of internal-to-external and use this data to predict default.

Conclusion

LenddoEFL delivers an innovative psychometric assessment by combining evidence from academia with active, internal research and development.  The examples above demonstrate how we quantify certain personality traits, and the myriad exercises we use in the field allow us to produce a rich psychological profile that is predictive of credit risk. In the next post we will explore the concept of metadata, which will show that how people answer psychometric questions is just as important as the answers themselves.

Blog | Winning Agent Incentivization Strategies

By Brett Elliot, Director of Product, LenddoEFL
An agent helps a microentrepreneur apply for a loan in India

An agent helps a microentrepreneur apply for a loan in India

Lenders often use loan officers, promoters or other types of agents to sell loans, financing, and credit cards. This can be an effective way to acquire new customers but there is a big risk in this approach. Agent incentivisation plans will make or break your bottom line. Good incentive plans lead to large, healthy portfolios, but bad ones lead to fraud, default and chargebacks. We’ve worked with lenders all around the globe and have seen both good and bad strategies. Here are some of the best and worst.

Worst agent incentivisation strategies

Paying per applicant

When your goal is to get new customers, a very simple approach is to pay agents for each customer that applies. Obviously, the more people into the top of the funnel, the more customers you will get right? Not exactly. Agents will optimize for their commissions. First they will go after good borrowers, then they will go after anyone. And some of them will realize they can make up fake applicants so they don’t have to go after anyone at all. If you simply try to optimize the number of applications, you will get a lot of applications, few disbursements, and even fewer good customers. This may seem obvious but we know of a large commercial bank in South America that did this and they had a huge problem finding good borrowers.

Paying per approval

Since paying per applicant does not work, the next logical step is to pay per approval. This way your agents can still acquire as many people as possible but you keep the portfolio healthy with controls in your approval process. This is the most common approach to incentivizing agents but it does create a perverse incentive for the agent to game the system in order to get more approvals. For example, one lender in Mexico was offering credit cards to college students. At some point the agents discovered that the only criteria for approval was that the applicant be under 26 years old. This caused a huge spike in fraud as the agents signed up anyone they could find that met the age criteria. If you are going to pay per approval, the controls you set must be strong and difficult to game. See below for recommendations about how using technology can help.

Paying a commission higher than the loan interest

A subtle but often overlooked problem with any incentive plan is paying an agent a higher commission than the loan interest costs. We know of a digital bank in South America that does this and they are experiencing a type of perpetual fraud. In this scheme, the agent fills out an application using a stolen identity. Then he takes out another loan using a different stolen identity and pays back the first one with it. He repeats this process over and over, collecting his commission. This is only possible if the commission is higher than the interest rate so keep that in mind when making your commission schedule.

Good agent incentivisation strategies

Paying a percentage of the money collected

One approach that aligns the agents and lenders is to pay the agent a percentage of the money collected. This incentivizes the agent to sign credit worthy new customers but also to follow up with the customer and make sure they make their payments. We sometimes call this the “MFI model” because of how effective some MFIs have become by using it.

Withholding payment for a certain period of time

Paying a percentage of the money collected doesn’t work for credit cards, but a strategy that does is to withhold payment for a certain amount of time. For example, one financial institution we know of pays the agent a little when the credit card is activated and then the remainder in 4 months so long as the card is not in arrears.

Recommendations

Combine several incentives

There is no one size fits all for any company and often combining different incentives works really well. The companies with the healthiest portfolios that we have seen do this. For example, a large MFI in Mexico pays their agents a very low fixed salary, plus a percentage of the amount disbursed and a percentage of the money collected.

Use technology to strengthen the controls

If you are certain that your controls and risk models are effective at weeding out the bad borrowers, then paying per approval is a reasonable approach. But how certain are you especially if your customers do not have much credit history? Technology can definitely help in this area. Using highly predictive alternative credit scores is a great start. Be sure to ask the vendor what controls are in place to detect agent fraud since they will try to game the system. At LenddoEFL, our scores are backed by our Score Confidence system which looks out for suspicious loan officer behavior and coaching as well as other signs of fraud.

Final thoughts

The end goal is to reward agents for portfolio growth and portfolio quality.  Lenders that limit the number of new clients added per month, maintain a solid portfolio of recurring clients, and combine different incentives for compensating agents, seem to have the largest and healthiest portfolios.

Blog | Turning Gini into Profits

Written by Rodrigo Sanabria, Director Partner Success, Latin America

On a prior post by Carlos del Carpio (“The Economics of Credit Scoring”), we discussed the business considerations to assess the merit of a risk model. In this post, I will address how a good origination model impacts the bottom line of a company’s P&L.

These principles may be adapted to look into other types of models used at later stages of a loan life, but on this post we will only address loan origination.

From a business point of view, an origination model is a tool that helps us aim at the “sweet spot”: where we maximize profits. A simple way to think about it is as a trade-off between the cost of acquisition (per loan disbursed) and cost of defaults (provisions, write-offs): The higher the approval rate, the lower the cost of acquisition, but the number of defaults go up.

How do we go about finding the sweet spot? I’ll try to explain it below.

Figure 1

Figure 1

A good model has a good Gini. A “USEFUL” model creates a steep probability of default (also known as PD) curve – we usually refer to it as a “risk split”.

 

Figure 1 shows the performance of a model based on psychometric information used by an MFI. The Gini (not shown in the graphic) is pretty good (0.28). The risk split is great: the people in the lower 20% of the score ranking are about 9 times more likely to default than those in the top 20%.

 

Knowing the probability of default for a given group, we may set a credit policy. Basically, we need to answer: “what would the default look like given an acceptance rate?”

 

Figure 2

Figure 2

 

We have re-plotted the same data in Figure 2, but now we express the probability of default in accumulated terms. Basically, the graph shows that if we were to accept 80% of this population sample, we would have a 4.5% PD, but if we were to accept 40%, the PD would go down 2 points to 2.5%.

Now, from a business point of view, we still do not have enough information to decide. Do we?


 

Where would the profit be maximized?

The total cost of customer acquisition is mainly fixed. Whatever we spend on marketing and sales to attract this population, will not change if we reject more or fewer applicants. So, the cost per loan disbursed would grow as we reduce the acceptance rate.

Of course, the higher the acceptance rate, the larger the portfolio, and the more interest revenue we get. BUT, the higher the provisions and write-offs. The combination of these 2 variables (cost of acquisition and net interest income) produces an inverted U-shaped curve that uncovers the “sweet spot”

Figure 3

Figure 3

The current credit policy is yielding a profit at 100% acceptance rate (see Figure 3) because the sample being analyzed corresponds to all the customers that were accepted (i.e. we have repayment data about them). So, the portfolio is profitable.

But the sweet spot seems to be shy of 60% acceptance rate. If this FI were to cut down its approval rate to that level, profits would increase by about a third, and its return on portfolio value would almost double. Of course, there are other considerations around market share and capital adequacy that may play a role in such a strategic decision, but the opportunity is clearly uncovered by the model.

 

In my experience, the sweet spot usually lies within 30%-70% acceptance rates, driven by marketing expenditures, interest rates, cost of capital, sales channels, and regulation.

What if the shape of the curve shows a continuous positive growth? The sweet spot is at a 100% acceptance rate! – have we reached risk karma? – Most likely, the answer is no (but almost!).

Figure 4

Figure 4

Most likely, we are leaving money on the table. Some business rule may be filtering people before they are scored. I have experienced this situation while working with lenders. For example, a traditional bank was filtering out all SMEs that had been operating for less than X years. This bias in the population was creating a great portfolio from a PD point of view, but there was clearly an opportunity to include younger businesses. As you can see in Figure 4, the maximum return on the portfolio was achieved at 60% approval rate, but they could increase profits by approving beyond the current acceptance rate. Depending on their cost of capital, it may be a good idea to expand the portfolio by approving more people.

In summary, think of your origination model as a business tool. Don’t stop at looking at Gini to assess a model’s merit. Understand how your profitability would be impacted by changes in your acceptance rate. If the PD curve is steep enough, you may capture quite a lot of value by applying the model to either reduce or increase your acceptance rate.

Financial Services Veteran, Ray Ferguson, Joins LenddoEFL’s Board

Ferguson’s wealth of experience across banking, insurance and venture capital in Asia makes the appointment a strategic addition for the growing fintech company

LenddoEFL, whose credit score, verification and consumer insights help leading banks across emerging markets make data-driven decisions, is proud to welcome financial services industry veteran, Ray Ferguson, as a new member of its board. Ferguson is co-founder and Managing Partner of Caber Partners, former Regional CEO, SE Asia at Standard Chartered Bank, and currently chairs the boards of digital life insurance company, Singapore Life, and e-money software platform, Youtap. 

Read complete press release.

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Blog | Our Commitment: Privacy, Responsibility, Choice and Control

By: Richard Eldridge, LenddoEFL CEO

Data privacy and security is a top priority at LenddoEFL and with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) deadline coming up, we wanted to share our thoughts on this topic.

Our work toward a more financially inclusive future for one billion people brings with it important responsibilities, none more important than keeping customer data private and secure.

Our Responsibilities

Privacy is one component of a broader set of responsibilities we have as a global financial technology company.

1. Customer Protection and Privacy

We follow these five principles across our operations:

  • Customer Data Ownership: Data we collect will always remain the property of the customer who shared their information with us and we will always safeguard the data as if it were our own. LenddoEFL uses world-class security standards in the transfer, storage, and processing of information to ensure that customer data is kept secure at all times. We never store data for longer than is necessary or authorized. Any information we permanently store is anonymized and encrypted. Where third party services are required, we only enlist the assistance of industry recognized players that adhere to the same or stricter standards than we do. In addition, security checks and penetration testing are conducted on a regular basis to ensure the security of our platform. See our full Security Policy here

  • Consent-Driven Access: LenddoEFL only accesses data that customers share with us and all information gathered requires their explicit consent.

  • Inclusive Use: Data shared with LenddoEFL is used with the sole purpose of enabling greater financial inclusion for each customer.

  • Transparent Handling: Data shared with us is not--and will never be--shared without the consent of the person to whom it belongs. We will never share a customer’s data or sell it to another third party except their financial institution that is our client. Furthermore, we will only use the data for purposes the customer has agreed to.

  • Unbiased Application: When building a credit model, no discriminatory variables—such as gender, race, and political or religious preferences— are taken into consideration.

For more details, read our full Privacy Policy.

2. Responsible Lending

When used properly, credit is a powerful tool for alleviating poverty, stabilizing income inequality, and empowering people to thrive. When used irresponsibly, credit can result in over-indebtedness, default, and economic instability. At LenddoEFL we are dedicated to building robust, proven models for our financial institution clients that enable safe, responsible data-driven decisions across the customer lifecycle with the goal of building a stable economy. 

3. Customer Choice and Control

Lastly, we believe in giving people options for financial inclusion, where they did not exist before. This involves using their own data to unlock access to savings, insurance products, and credit. With Europe’s second Payments Services Directive (PSD2) paving the way for open banking, people have increasing control over their data, and we know from experience that data can open doors to better, more affordable financial services. It makes sense to let each individual decide if and when to share their data. LenddoEFL’s credit scoring and verification tools are designed with this choice and control in mind. We allow customers to choose which data they want to share, if any, to get access to financial services from our clients. The more data someone grants us access to, the better we can understand them, and the better financial institutions can match them with appropriate offerings (pricing, terms, amount, etc).

NewsWav | CTOS & LenddoEFL partner to boost financial inclusion in Malaysia

KUALA LUMPUR: CTOS Data Systems Sdn Bhd (CTOS), Malaysia’s largest credit reporting agency, has entered into a partnership with LenddoEFL to enable access to financing for Malaysian consumers with little to no credit history.

Both CTOS and LenddoEFL have aided banks, lending instit…

Read more in NewsWav

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Benzinga | Here Are The Benzinga Global Fintech Award Finalists For The Best Under-Banked Or Emerging Market Solution

The finalists for the Best Under-banked or Emerging Market Solution category are:

LenddoEFL
CEO: Richard Eldridge
Description: LenddoEFL's mission is to provide 1 billion people access to powerful financial products at a lower cost, faster and more conveniently.

See full list of finalists

Lodex Blog | LodexSecurity, Privacy and Social Data - Insights from LenddoEFL

Social data empowers millions of people around the world through their transactions with financial services providers. We wanted to bring this technology to Australia and have teamed up with LenddoEFL to do this.

We spoke with Audrey Banares Reamon, Quality and Compliance Manager, and Howard Lince III, Director of Engineering, from LenddoEFL, and asked them some of the questions you have been asking to help give you a greater insight into the power behind Social Scoring and using non-traditional data. Enjoy.

See full interview

Spore Magazine | Réduire les risques : Des systèmes innovants d’évaluation du crédit pour aider les agriculteurs

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La difficulté d’emprunter, pour de nombreux petits agriculteurs ne disposant ni de garanties ni d’antécédents de crédit, a fait apparaître de nouveaux systèmes pilotes d’évaluation du crédit pour aider les banques à apprécier les risques que présentent réellement les emprunteurs et tirer parti de ce secteur potentiellement lucratif.

L’évaluation psychométrique

Pour augmenter les taux d’acceptation et réduire les délais de traitement des prêts aux agriculteurs, Juhudi Kilimo, prestataire de solutions financières pour les petits agriculteurs d’Afrique de l’Est, teste la méthode d’EFL Global, une entreprise privée qui utilise l’évaluation psychométrique pour créer les profils de risque d’emprunteurs africains, asiatiques, européens et latino-américains. Cette méthode pilote – financée par la Fondation Mastercard – mobilise les représentants de six agences kényanes de Juhudi qui visitent et incitent les demandeurs de prêts à passer des tests psychométriques sur tablette. Ces tests permettent, selon EFL, de définir leur personnalité, y compris leur self-control en matière de dépenses et budgétisation. Sur cette base, une cote de crédit à trois caractères est alors attribuée aux demandeurs. À partir de son évaluation initiale d’environ 6 000 clients réalisée à l’aide de l’outil d’EFL, Juhudi a constaté que 6 % des personnes classées dans le quintile le plus bas avaient au moins une fois des arriérés de remboursement de 60 jours pour un prêt type d’un an, contre 1,5 % dans le quintile le mieux noté.

Read full article.

Medici | What Happens at the Convergence of Machine Intelligence and Online Lending

Credit scoring and approval rates changed substantially with the arrival of alternative lenders, mainly due to the adoption of new practices in collecting and analyzing potential borrower data. Alternative data has played its role in expanding horizons for financial institutions and for creating an opportunity to enter the financial sector fir technology startups and data-rich international companies.

While social media, for example, as a source of data for creditworthiness assessment is still at a nascent stage, certain startups are already claiming to have incorporated information from social networks into their frameworks. In the quest to reinvent the way to assess consumer-related risk (as well as extend credit to unscored and questionable), startups were found more imaginative than traditional institutions.

Alternative data requires alternative approach to data analytics, which wide adoption of machine learning and artificial intelligence brought.

Read full article

Medici | How BigTech Challenges Banks

The evolution of bank-FinTech narrative brought us to a logical point, when FinTech is no longer perceived to be a threat to traditional banking, but rather as an instrument in re-establishing their position in the financial services industry. The narrative, however, doesn’t end there. As Citi emphasized in its March 2018 Bank of the Future: The ABCs of Digital Disruption in Financereport, traditional banking is being challenged not by small FinTech startups, but by established tech giants because of:

Big data customer insights

"Social media has been recognized by Wharton as an important data source for credit scoringback in 2014, although the practice of judging a stranger based on his/her social environment is not really new. One of the core ideas is that “who you know matters.” Companies like LenddoFriendlyScore, and ModernLend use non-traditional data to provide credit scoring and verification along with basic financial services. Those companies are creating alternative ways to indicate creditworthiness. The information contained about a person in social networks can provide some sort of verification that the person exists at all and who that person is."

Read full article

 

Microfinance Gateway | Malaysia: Fintech Heavyweight CTOS Expands Services for A Better Financial Inclusion

CTOS has been Malaysia’s largest in terms of credit reporting, just announced a partnership with LenddoEFL to achieve a joint vision of financial inclusion for the people who had difficulties securing loans in Malaysia due to the lack of credit history. 

Read article in MicroFinance Gateway website: https://www.microfinancegateway.org/announcement/malaysia-fintech-heavyweight-ctos-expands-services-better-financial-inclusion

Malaysian Business Online | CTOS and LenddoEFL partner up to boost Financial Inclusion in Malaysia

CTOS Data Systems Sdn Bhd, Malaysia’s largest credit reporting agency, has entered into a partnership with LenddoEFL.

CTOS Data Systems Sdn Bhd, Malaysia’s largest credit reporting agency, has entered into a partnership with LenddoEFL.

AstroWani | CTOS, LenddoEFL extends financial inclusion in Malaysia

30% of Malaysians with good potential is still denied access to loans. This is because they lack or directly have no credit history. In order to curb this issue, Malaysia's Largest Credit Reporting agency, CTOS Data Systems Limited, partnered with Fintech LenddoEFL company and emerged with a new solution.

30% of Malaysians with good potential is still denied access to loans. This is because they lack or directly have no credit history. In order to curb this issue, Malaysia's Largest Credit Reporting agency, CTOS Data Systems Limited, partnered with Fintech LenddoEFL company and emerged with a new solution.

Karangkraf | Beri peluang rakyat akses perkhidmatan kewangan

AGENSI pelaporan kredit terbesar Malaysia, CTOS Data Systems Sdn Bhd (CTOS), menjalin kerjasama dengan LenddoEFL bagi memperluaskan perangkuman kewangan pengguna Malaysia yang kurang atau tidak mempunyai sejarah kredit melalui ‘CTOS Non-Traditional Data Score’.

Ketua Pegawai Eksekutif Kumpulan CTOS Holdings Sdn Bhd, Dennis Martin berkata, walaupun markah kredit ramalan tentang tingkah laku pembayaran telah meningkat tahun demi tahun, namun sekumpulan besar peminjam yang berpotensi baik ketika ini dinafikan akses kepada kredit disebabkan kurangnya sejarah kredit.

“Disebabkan pemberian pinjaman pengguna lazimnya bergantung kepada skor kredit, individu ini mendapati diri mereka terpinggir daripada ekosistem kredit dan juga sukar menambah baik markah kredit mereka.

“Dengan memanfaatkan sepenuhnya data tingkah laku dan data digital yang diizinkan penggunaannya oleh pengguna, CTOS dan  LenddoEFL akan melancarkan platform keputusan kredit universal yang mampu menaksir kebolehpercayaan kredit mana-mana rakyat Malaysia, baik yang ada sejarah kredit mahupun kurang sejarah kredit,” katanya dalam kenyataan media.

Menurut Dennis, kini banyak individu yang dahulunya kurang dilayan oleh institusi kredit atas alasan risiko kredit tradisional mereka, akan menikmati peluang untuk akses kredit. 

Read full article.

New Strait Times | CTOS & LenddoEFL partner to boost financial inclusion in Malaysia

KUALA LUMPUR: CTOS Data Systems Sdn Bhd (CTOS), Malaysia’s largest credit reporting agency, has entered into a partnership with LenddoEFL to enable access to financing for Malaysian consumers with little to no credit history.

Both CTOS and LenddoEFL have aided banks, lending institutions, utility and credit card companies to reduce risk, increase portfolio size, improve customer service and accurately verify applicants. Read full article.

Markets Insider | CTOS & LenddoEFL Partner to Boost Financial Inclusion in Malaysia

KUALA LUMPUR, Malaysia, and SINGAPORE, CTOS Data Systems Sdn Bhd (CTOS), Malaysia's largest credit reporting agency, has entered into a partnership with LenddoEFL to achieve a joint vision of financial inclusion for Malaysian consumers with little to no credit history. Both fintech leaders have aided banks, lending institutions, utility and credit card companies to reduce risk, increase portfolio size, improve customer service and accurately verify applicants. Read full article.

SME Finance Forum | 10+ Innovative Fintechs to Demo the Africa SME Finance Forum 2018

The Africa SME Finance Forum 2018 will examine the key challenges faced by MSMEs in Africa, and explore innovative local and global best practice solutions to promote youth entrepreneurship and enhance access to financing for MSMEs.

The TechPitch will be held in the afternoon of May 15, and will provide an opportunity for innovative fintechs to demo their product to global and emerging market investment firms, financial institutions and other Forum participants. This exclusive opportunity is one of the key features of the conference and is open to a limited number of financial technology innovators working in the SME space.  Approximately 12 fintech companies are selected to demo their products to Forum participants during this 90-minute session.

We are pleased to already have a number of fintech innovators such as LendableTALASME Credit ProMobbisuranceN-Frnds,LendEnableAlternative CircleLenddoQ-LanaTopicusUber and many others joining us during the TechPitch. Read full article.